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The salt batteries they are the result of research made in Italy. The salt batteries they are being chosen more and more frequently for applications such as powering electric vehicles and the storage of energy from renewable sources such as solar or wind energy.
A limit of batteries lithium-ion batteries mounted on electric cars is caused by low temperatures: on cold winter mornings, an electric car could struggle to start because the energy storage system is very sensitive to freezing. In the salt batterieslow temperatures are not a problem: inside the battery has an operating temperature of 270 °, which is why thesalt batteriesthey are also called "thermal batteries ".
The salt batteries on the market
Among the types of salt batteries most common available on the market, we find the ZEBRA batteries (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities), thesalt batteries SoNick
(Sodium - Nickel) produced by the Italian FIAMM. FIAMM produces about 70% of its turnover abroad, operating in 60 countries with 3300 employees worldwide and 1200 in Italy.
In the Italian headquarters of FIAMM a research center was created where innovations in the field of batteries industrial, salt batteries and horns. The salt batteries FIAMM are produced and sold all over the world for both energy storage and electric mobility. The salt batteries of FIAMM are used in Sao Paulo, in Brazil in Riyadh in Saudi Arabia and in other parts of the globe. FIAMM has started the production of salt batteries already in 2010, it was not long to see other large multinationals launch similar productions.
The mechanism of salt batteries
The diagram above shows the operating model of salt batteries Zero Emission Battery Research Activities. The image shows that the cell uses molten sodium (Na) on the negative electrode, while the positive electrode is nickel in the case of discharge, while it is hydrochloric nickel in the charging process.
Since the sodium and the electrolyte are in a liquid state, it is necessary to interpose between the two
substances the β-alumina ceramic electrolyte. If the salt batteries are not charged, the electrolyte gradually solidifies until it reaches the state of "inert battery ".
Sugar batteries are currently being developed in Japanese laboratories.