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Bud graft: on which plants it should be done and how to do it. Best time and instructions.
Bud graft, what is it
As any agronomist will already know,trigger it is a practice for the agamic multiplication of plants made with a physiological fusion of two bionts. There are many types of grafting, from those by approximation to scion grafts.
We talk about split grafts, cell, tongue ... but the most common and indicated in fruit growing are the bud grafts immediately followed by those with scion.
The bud grafts they are popular in fruit growing because they have a high probability of success. Today we will see how to do a bud graft from the collection of the buds to the taking root.
Bud grafting, on which plants it should be done
The ideal period to operate thebud graft depends on the plant species you intend engage.
L'bud graft it is particularly suitable for apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum and cherry. When to graft these fruit trees? For the trees mentioned the best time to do thebud graft it takes place from August to September.
In this period they canengagealso hawthorn, medlar and rose. In this context we speak ofdormant bud graft.
The vegetative bud grafting is performed in early spring using buds taken from cut branches and stored in damp sand, or placed in a damp cloth kept in the least cold part of the refrigerator (generally in the vegetable drawer, located at the bottom). Bud grafting is also possible on citrus fruits.
Bud grafting, what is it for
To make the bud graft you need:
- scion, a branch from which to take the bud
- rootstock, a compatible plant on which the bud will be grafted
- grafting tape
- grafting knife or scissors
For bud grafting, the use of mastic is not always recommended, which, on the other hand, is necessary for other types of grafts.
Bud grafting, how to do it
- From the south-facing facade of the plant, take some branches on a human scale. It is from these branches that the buds for thegrafting.
- Choose well-ripened branches rich in triple buds and slightly raised from the wood. If the buds are facing slightly upwards, the operation will be simpler and the chances of taking root will increase.
- On the rootstock you have to make a T-shaped incision.
- The incision must only cut the bark without penetrating the underlying wood.
- To make a perfect cut on the rootstock, first make a vertical cut almost equal to that of the bud you are going to insert. Then make a horizontal cut and form your T.
- To make the horizontal cut use the tip of the knife keeping it very inclined.
- Be careful not to exert too much perssion, if in addition to the bark you also cut the underlying wood, rubber will form and the graft will take a long time to take root or will not take root at all.
- At this point you will have to insert the gem into the T-cut.
- The bud should be fixed with the ligature for which the most varied materials can be used, the important thing is that they are soft enough to allow the plant to take root and enlarge.
To increase the chances of taking root, it is necessary to make a clean, clean cut without burrs. An unclear cut could cause suffering to the plant and compromise the success of the entire operation.
This is why it is recommended to use well-sharpened grafting knives or scissors designed for cutting the bud to be grafted into the T-shaped cut made in the rootstock.
Even the binding must be done carefully: the bud must be perfectly adherent to the edges of the T-cut made on the rootstock. Many recommend buying raffia which, in itself, is a good material so if you already have raffia at home, use that. To make the operation safer and easier, buy grafting tape; it is a weakly adhesive tape but very flexible, it allows to adhere perfectly thescion with rootstockfacilitating the engraftment process.
Grafting tape is easy to find at agricultural consortia, it can also be bought using online sales.
On Amazon, a pack of three rolls can be bought with 12.94 euros (a single roll can be bought with 4.50 euros). For all information, I refer you to the official page dedicated to the product: Professional grafting tape.
How to graft a fruit tree?
- Choose rootstock and scion
- Adjust the scissors to the type of cut (and graft) desired
- Cut the scion and the branch of the rootstock where you want to plant the scion
- Join the scion to the rootstock by adding mastic
- Seal with raffia or grafting tape.