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The hypocaustic wall heating system was used in Roman baths
The wall heating it is the healthiest and also the oldest of the heat distribution systems in a building. Two thousand years ago it consisted of lighting a fire in a furnace room under the house called the hypocaust and heating the walls there through hot air ducts. From the name of the place positioned under the rooms where the fire was lit, the wall heating of this type is called hypocaustic heating.
Obviously today the principle of wall heating it can be applied to all normal power supply technologies and is used above all in the more practical water variant, which is a very valid alternative to convection heating and is more effective, as well as healthier, than underfloor heating. It is also a system for keeping walls dry and protecting them from rising damp phenomena.
The advantages of the heating in parades are numerous, starting with a significant reduction in energy consumption. The temperature of the heating element can in fact be kept much lower than conventional heating systems since, thanks to the radiation, there is no need to overheat the air by creating convective motions that circulate the dust.
It is known that thermohygrometric comfort in a closed environment in the cold season is reached when the walls are warm, even better if the heat comes from the sides and not from below as it happens in underfloor heating. The latter exploits the same principle as the wall heating, and has the same advantage of being completely invisible and not stealing space, but overall it is worth a few points less in terms of effectiveness and well-being.
The only disadvantage of a heating Wall of the hypocaustic type is that its realization presents some more technical difficulties. Speaking of water systems, a small amount of liquid is made to flow in a copper pipe inside special channels created in the wall (the difficulty consists precisely in preparing the part in a suitable way) and the whole is then covered with a mortar guarantees the passage of heat (of the type used for stoves). This is the traditional system, then there are also more technological ones. Once the wall is hot, the heat storage capacity allows long breaks in the system (energy saving) while maintaining thermal comfort.